Indigenous and Scientific Ways of Knowing Nature
written by Dr. Glen Aikenhead and Dr. Herman Michell:
Clarification of Coming to Know (page 74):
Indigenous ways of living in nature have been described in terms of competencies (Barnhardt & Kawagley, 2005):
"In Western terms, competency [in school science] is often assessed based on predetermined ideas of what a person should know, which is then measured indirectly through various forms of 'objective' tests. Such an approach does not address whether that person is actually capable of putting that knowledge into practice. In the traditional Native sense, competency has an unequivocal relationship to survival or extinction - if one fails as a caribou hunter, the entire family is in jeopardy. One either has or does not have requisite knowledge [ways of living in nature], and it is tested in a real-world context. (p. 11)"
This is a great book to read and refer back to; it's not being printed so if you find a copy - treasure 💰 it!